Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)

General Information About Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system.

The lymph system is part of the immune system and is made up of the following:

Anatomy of the lymph system, showing the lymph vessels and lymph organs including lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. Lymph (clear fluid) and lymphocytes travel through the lymph vessels and into the lymph nodes where the lymphocytes destroy harmful substances. The lymph enters the blood through a large vein near the heart.

Because lymph tissue is found throughout the body, adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma can begin in almost any part of the body. Cancer can spread to the liver and many other organs and tissues.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in pregnant women is the same as the disease in nonpregnant women of childbearing age. However, treatment is different for pregnant women. This summary includes information on the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in both adults and children. Treatment for children, however, is different than treatment for adults. (See the PDQ summary on Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment for more information.)

There are many different types of lymphoma.

Lymphomas are divided into two general types: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This summary is about the treatment of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. For information about other types of lymphoma, see the following PDQ summaries:

Age, gender, and a weakened immune system can affect the risk of developing adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. People who think they may be at risk should discuss this with their doctor. Risk factors for adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma include the following:

Possible signs of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma include fever, sweating, fatigue, and weight loss.

These and other symptoms may be caused by adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur:

Tests that examine the body and lymph system are used to help detect (find) and diagnose adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

The following tests and procedures may be used:

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

Prognosis also depends on the level of LDH in the blood.

For non-Hodgkin lymphoma during pregnancy, the treatment options also depend on:

Some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma spread more quickly than others do. Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas that occur during pregnancy are aggressive. Delaying treatment of aggressive lymphoma until after the baby is born may lessen the mother's chance of survival. Immediate treatment is often recommended, even during pregnancy.

Stages of Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

After adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lymph system or to other parts of the body.

The process used to find out the type of cancer and if cancer cells have spread within the lymph system or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan treatment. The following tests and procedures may be used in the staging process:

For pregnant women with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, staging tests that protect the fetus from the harms of radiation are used. These include MRI, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, lumbar puncture, and ultrasound, which do not use radiation. An ultrasound exam is a procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.

There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

Stages of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include E and S.

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may be described as follows:

The following stages are used for adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma:

Stage I

Stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into stage I and stage IE.

Stage II

Stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into stage II and stage IIE.

Stage III

Stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is divided into stage III, stage IIIE, stage IIIS, and stage IIIS+E.

Stage IV

In stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the cancer either:

Adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas are also described in terms of how fast they grow and the location of affected lymph nodes.

Indolent or aggressive:

Contiguous or noncontiguous:

Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Recurrent adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The lymphoma may come back in the lymph system or in other parts of the body. Indolent lymphoma may come back as aggressive lymphoma. Aggressive lymphoma may come back as indolent lymphoma.

Treatment Option Overview

There are different types of treatment for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Different types of treatment are available for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

For pregnant women with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, treatment is carefully chosen to protect the fetus. Treatment decisions are based on the mother’s wishes, the stage of the non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the age of the fetus. The treatment plan may change as the symptoms, cancer, and pregnancy change. Choosing the most appropriate cancer treatment is a decision that ideally involves the patient, family, and health care team.

Four types of standard treatment are used:

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells and keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

For pregnant women with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, radiation therapy should be postponed until after delivery, if possible, to avoid any risk to the fetus. If immediate treatment is needed, pregnant women may decide to continue the pregnancy and receive radiation therapy. However, lead used to shield the fetus may not protect it from scattered radiation that could possibly cause cancer in the future.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). To treat certain types of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma that spread to the brain, CNS prophylaxis (chemotherapy given to kill cancer cells in the brain or spinal cord) may be used. The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

Combination chemotherapy is treatment using two or more anticancer drugs. Steroid drugs may be added, to relieve swelling and inflammation.

In pregnant women, the fetus is exposed to chemotherapy when the mother is treated, and some anticancer drugs cause birth defects. Because anticancer drugs are passed to the fetus through the mother, both must be watched closely when chemotherapy is given.

Biologic therapy

Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of biologic therapy used to treat adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. Monoclonal antibodies that have been joined to radioactive material are called radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies.

Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change.

New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.

This summary section describes treatments that are being studied in clinical trials. It may not mention every new treatment being studied. Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site.

Vaccine therapy

Vaccine therapy is a type of biologic therapy that uses a substance or group of substances meant to cause the immune system to respond to a tumor and kill it.

High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant

High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant is a method of giving high doses of chemotherapy and replacing blood-forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient or a donor and are frozen and stored. After the chemotherapy is completed, the stored stem cells are thawed and given back to the patient through an infusion. These reinfused stem cells grow into (and restore) the body’s blood cells.

Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. These have been retrieved from NCI's clinical trials database.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests. This is sometimes called re-staging.

Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.

Indolent, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Treatment of indolent, stage I and contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with indolent, stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and indolent, contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Aggressive, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Treatment of aggressive, stage I and contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with aggressive, stage I adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and aggressive, contiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Indolent, Noncontiguous Stage II/III/IV Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Treatment of indolent, noncontiguous stage II/III/IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with indolent, noncontiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, indolent, stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and indolent, stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Aggressive, Noncontiguous Stage II/III/IV Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Treatment of aggressive, noncontiguous stage II/III/IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with aggressive, noncontiguous stage II adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, aggressive, stage III adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma and aggressive, stage IV adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

Treatment of adult lymphoblastic lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with adult lymphoblastic lymphoma.

Diffuse Small Noncleaved Cell/Burkitt Lymphoma

Treatment of adult diffuse small noncleaved cell/Burkitt lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with adult Burkitt lymphoma.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma During Pregnancy

Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma During the First Trimester of Pregnancy

When aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy, medical oncologists may advise the patient to end her pregnancy so that treatment may begin. Treatment is usually chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy.

Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma During the Second and Third Trimester of Pregnancy

When possible, treatment should be postponed until after an early delivery, so that the fetus will not be exposed to anticancer drugs or radiation therapy. However, sometimes the cancer will need to be treated immediately in order to increase the mother's chance of survival.

Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma During Pregnancy

Women who have indolent (slow-growing) non-Hodgkin lymphoma can usually delay treatment with watchful waiting.

Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Indolent, Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Treatment of indolent, recurrent adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:

Treatment of indolent lymphoma that comes back as aggressive lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with indolent, recurrent adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Aggressive, Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Treatment of aggressive, recurrent adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include the following:

Treatment of aggressive lymphoma that comes back as indolent lymphoma may include the following:

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with aggressive, recurrent adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

To Learn More About Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

For more information from the National Cancer Institute about adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma, see the following:

For general cancer information and other resources from the National Cancer Institute, see the following:

Get More Information From NCI

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Changes to This Summary (05/06/2008)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Several enhancements have been made to this summary to better explain certain medical concepts and to help readers find information about clinical trials. The following changes were made:

About PDQ

PDQ is a comprehensive cancer database available on NCI's Web site.

PDQ is the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) comprehensive cancer information database. Most of the information contained in PDQ is available online at NCI's Web site. PDQ is provided as a service of the NCI. The NCI is part of the National Institutes of Health, the federal government's focal point for biomedical research.

PDQ contains cancer information summaries.

The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries are available in two versions. The health professional versions provide detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions provide current and accurate cancer information.

The PDQ cancer information summaries are developed by cancer experts and reviewed regularly.

Editorial Boards made up of experts in oncology and related specialties are responsible for writing and maintaining the cancer information summaries. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made as new information becomes available. The date on each summary ("Date Last Modified") indicates the time of the most recent change.

PDQ also contains information on clinical trials.

A clinical trial is a study to answer a scientific question, such as whether one treatment is better than another. Trials are based on past studies and what has been learned in the laboratory. Each trial answers certain scientific questions in order to find new and better ways to help cancer patients. During treatment clinical trials, information is collected about the effects of a new treatment and how well it works. If a clinical trial shows that a new treatment is better than one currently being used, the new treatment may become "standard." Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Listings of clinical trials are included in PDQ and are available online at NCI's Web site. Descriptions of the trials are available in health professional and patient versions. Many cancer doctors who take part in clinical trials are also listed in PDQ. For more information, call the Cancer Information Service 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237); TTY at 1-800-332-8615.

Date last modified 2008-05-06